assault rifle meaning

prosinac 29, 2020

Corrections? Millions of these weapons were sold to many countries. (so not a belt fed firearm, like a medium machine gun) 2) Shoulder fired. In 1984, Guns & … What does an assault rifle mean in your dream? Powered by MaryTTS, Wiktionary. What does assault gun mean? 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? The AK-47 was made of forged and milled steel, giving it a weight of 10.6 pounds (4.8 kg) with a loaded 30-round magazine. switches between semi-automatic or full-automatic) weapons that fire a cartridge intermediate in power … Delivered to your inbox! AK Assault Rifle. Merriam-Webster's online dictionary changed its definition of "assault rifle" to one that matches what gun control advocates are pushing for. Updates? How to use assault in a sentence. The national conversation included many references to the ... “Assault rifle.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/assault%20rifle. https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/meaning-of-ar-in-ar-15-firearm Learn more. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "assault rifle" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Selective fire weapon. Only some 425,000 to 440,000 of these rifles were built—too few and too late for the German war effort—but they were based on a concept that would dominate infantry weapons into the 21st century. As a result, in 1953 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) reluctantly agreed to standardize on a 7.62-mm cartridge that was a half-inch shorter than the M1 cartridge but of the same calibre and power. Most designated marksman rifles are based on an assault rifle that is currently issued by a nation's military, or on a battle rifle that was formerly issued. It has now been updated to include the full definition. As a result, weapons such as the Belgian Steyr AUG, the Chinese QBZ-95, and Israeli IWI Tavor SAR were less than 30 inches (760 mm) long—compared with the M16, which was 39 inches (990 mm) overall. During World War II, Hugo Schmeisser designed a light rifle to fire the Germans’ 7.92-mm Kurz (“Short”) cartridge, which was of the same calibre as the Mauser rifle cartridge but was lighter and shorter and was therefore of a less-potent “intermediate” power. (colloquial) Any firearm meeting the definition of an assault weapon, and in the form of a rifle. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... From top, four assault rifles: M16A1, M16A2, M4, and M16A4. Although words alone are insufficient, they might create an assault when coupled with some action that indicates the ability to carry out the threat. Assault rifle definition, a military rifle capable of both automatic and semiautomatic fire, utilizing an intermediate-power cartridge. After the Korean War (1950–53), U.S. military researchers, dissatisfied with rifle-power ammunition, began to test a .22-inch (5.56-mm) cartridge that propelled a lighter projectile at a much higher muzzle velocity of 3,000 feet (910 metres) per second. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Category … According to the Defense Intelligence Agency, “assault rifles” are “short, compact, selective-fire weapons that fire a cartridge intermediate in power between a submachine gun and rifle cartridges.” All assault rifles are capable of automatic fire. Like the German weapon, the AK-47 (weapons in the AK family were suffixed with the year of their development) was operated by diverting some of the propellant gases into a cylinder above the barrel. Historical evidence suggests that they were influenced by the Sturmgewehr, but to what extent remains uncertain. assault rifle synonyms, assault rifle pronunciation, assault rifle translation, English dictionary definition of assault rifle. How to say assault rifle. May be encountered with or without bayonet, with wooden stock or folding metal stock. Russian weapons designer Mikhail Kalashnikov holding his best-known creation, the AK-47, 1997. Most modern infantry rifles are assault rifles or carbines with fully automatic or burst fire capabilities.…. I weapon who's sole purpose is to assault another in a sexual manner with various gadjets attached to it.It's origin is unknown, but Bill Clinton had something to do with it. Assault rifles are also characterized by their selective fire capabilities and detachable magazines. The medium to high capacity of Assault Rifle magazines means continuous fire can be laid down on targets or structures, allowing for the player to easily break … As The Federalist notes in a recent column, the current definition of “assault rifle,” updated March 31, 2018, reads, noun: any of various intermediate-range, magazine-fed military rifles (such as the AK-47) that can be set for automatic or semiautomatic fire; also : a rifle that resembles a military assault rifle but is designed to allow only semiautomatic fire M16A1 assault rifle. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. This permitted a much shorter weapon than orthodox designs, in which the magazine and receiver were ahead of the trigger. An earlier version of this story included only the simple definition of the term “assault rifle” from the cached entry dated June 13, 2016. Now it sounds scary, right? See more. Armies around the world developed new assault rifles with compact “bullpup” designs, in which the bolt, receiver, and magazine were behind the handgrip and trigger and much of the shoulder stock was occupied by the operating mechanism. In many variants, they were adopted and made by countries all over the world. Machinegun. Back in Germany, Hitler used the term Sturmgewehr (meaning either “storm rifle” or “assault rifle” depending on who you ask) to describe the StG44. Assault guns are designed to provide direct fire support for infantry attacks, especially against other infantry or fortified positions. 2. Owing to the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917, only about 3,200 of Fyodorov’s weapons were delivered. Definition of assault gun in the Definitions.net dictionary. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples U.S. soldiers found the M4, at 30 inches with the stock retracted, to be easier to use than the M16 in the close quarters of urban fighting during the Iraq War of 2003–11. ‘The sniper carries his sniper rifle as well as an assault rifle or machine pistol for close-in fighting.’. At the turn of a selector switch, the action could be changed from semiautomatic to fully automatic, firing at a rate of 600 rounds per minute. An assault rifle in your dream is a symbol of a decision. The act required for an assault must be overt. Late in the war the Soviets also began a search for a rifle to shoot their 7.62-mm intermediate cartridge, which produced a muzzle velocity of 2,330 feet (710 metres) per second. An assault rifle is a military service rifle that fires an intermediate powered rifle round. Assault rifle, military firearm that is chambered for ammunition of reduced size or propellant charge and that has the capacity to switch between semiautomatic and fully automatic fire. As a self-loading rifle, the M14 performed well, but it was too heavy to be effective as a close-quarters weapon, and the extreme recoil generated by the NATO round caused it to be totally unmanageable as an automatic rifle. Most commonly, they were either the gas-operated Fusil Automatique Léger (FAL), introduced by the Belgian Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre in 1957, or the blowback-operated Gewehr 3 (G3), produced in West Germany by the firm Heckler & Koch, beginning in 1959. An assault rifle is a rapid-fire, magazine-fed rifle designed for military use. An assault rifle is a rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge, a detachable magazine, and can switch between semi-automatic/fully automatic fire.Assault rifles are currently the standard service rifles in most modern armies.. By strict definition, a firearm must have the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle: [page needed] [page needed] [page needed] However, the Austrian Army, though issuing the Steyr AUG rifle, does not issue the HBAR (heavy barrel) variant. The development of Western small arms proceeded more slowly, mainly because the United States insisted upon maintaining a power level comparable to the M1. Stop Saying AR-15s Aren't Assault Rifles 06/16/2016 07:34 pm ET Updated Dec 06, 2017 In the wake of the Orlando shootings, the AR-15 and weapons like it are in the spotlight because, once again, a semi-automatic rifle was used in the shooting. An assault gun is a form of self-propelled artillery which uses an infantry support gun mounted on a motorized chassis, normally an armored fighting vehicle. Violence on the battlefield had increased at such an alarming rate that the existing weapons did very little to protect them. In the years after World War II, the assault rifle replaced high-powered bolt-action and semiautomatic rifles to become the standard infantry weapon of modern armies. n. 1. In the case of some assault rifles, such as the H&K G36 or Steyr AUG, the SAW is simply the standard rifle with a few parts replaced. Have you ever wondered about these lines? In the 1990s the U.S. Army began to issue the M4, a lighter and shorter carbine version of the M16 that soon became the army’s standard infantry weapon. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The receiver of the AKM version, introduced in 1959, was made of lighter sheet metal, reducing the weight to 8.3 pounds (3.8 kg), and the AK-74 version, following later trends in the West, switched to a 5.45-mm cartridge. A term for a rifle made up by the media to make rifles sound scary. both semi-automatic and full-automatic) weapons that fire a cartridge intermediate in power between submachinegun and rifle cartridges. Assault rifles are shoulder-held rifles designed for military use and have been restricted from civilian ownership since 1934. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. In the years after World War II, the assault rifle replaced high-powered bolt-action and semiautomatic rifles to become the standard infantry... Functional components of an automatic rifle, as illustrated by the M16 assault rifle. To fire this new round, the United States produced an improved version of the M1 rifle, featuring a 20-round detachable magazine and being capable of selective fire. Called the U.S. Rifle 7.62-mm M14, it replaced the M1, beginning in 1957. You're on your way to becoming a news reporter. Omissions? The M16 model was originally designed as the civilian semiautomatic AR-15 by ArmaLite, Inc. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Define assault rifle. The term came shortly after the first assault rifle was developed to meet the needs of the modern soldier. So where did the term assault rifle come from anyway? How to pronounce, definition audio dictionary. The military M16 and M4 models are manufactured by Colt's Manufacturing Company and have been standard issue weapons for United States and NATO military forces since the 1960s. Distinctive Characteristics. An assault rifle must meet the following 4 criteria: 1)Detachable magazine fed. Other NATO armies adopted more satisfactory 7.62-mm rifles, although even these were employed as advanced self-loaders rather than automatics. Classic examples include the M14, FN FAL, AR-10 and Heckler & Koch G3. This drove a piston that forced the bolt back against its spring and cocked the hammer for the next round. Assault Rifle is a classification of weapons that are in between a submachine gun and a machine gun, meaning they have an intermediate cartridge. Assault rifle definition is - any of various intermediate-range, magazine-fed military rifles (such as the AK-47) that can be set for automatic or semiautomatic fire; also : a rifle that resembles a military assault rifle but is designed to allow only semiautomatic fire. The AR-15 was gas-operated, but it eliminated the piston in favour of a tube that directed propellant gases directly into an expansion chamber between the bolt and bolt carrier. Assault rifles are now the standard service weapon in most militaries around the world. The AR-15 is being dubbed the “weapon of choice” for mass shooters, and the act of terrorism in Orlando has renewed calls for an “assault weapons” ban, but by any definition of the term, the AR-15 is not an assault rifle. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. A bullpup design (magazine and cartridge ejection behind the trigger), the QBZ-95 was adopted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army in 1997. In 1962 the U.S. Air Force adopted the AR-15, and the Department of Defense designated it the M16. Assault rifle, military firearm that is chambered for ammunition of reduced size or propellant charge and that has the capacity to switch between semiautomatic and fully automatic fire. Typically an … All Assault Weapons are hitscan weapons, meaning the shots the player takes will instantly connect with targets. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? An assault rifle in a dream is connected to one's emotions. After U.S. troops in Europe were issued the M16, a series of trials ensued that ended with the decision, in 1980, to adopt a standard 5.56-mm NATO cartridge. a military rifle capable of both automatic and semiautomatic fire, utilizing an intermediate-power cartridge 2. a nonmilitary weapon modeled on the military assault rifle, usu. A battle rifle is a semi-automatic or full-automatic rifle that fires 7.62 mm NATO or similar full-power rounds. Try putting the word assault in front of anything that could hurt you when the wrong person uses it. To fire this small-calibre high-velocity round, in 1958 they chose the AR-15 rifle, designed by Eugene M. Stoner for the ArmaLite Division of Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation. Typically chambered for 5.56-mm or 7.62-mm ammunition, assault rifles are distinguished by their high rate of automatic or…, …World War II, however, the assault rifle, a light medium-range weapon with a switch allowing semi- or fully automatic fire, has become the dominant military rifle.…, In some models of assault rifles, fully automatic fire can be substituted for one-shot or three-shot burst fire by flicking a switch on the weapon. The terms “assault weapon” and “assault rifle” are used a lot, but when it comes to the two separate types of weapons, there is a great deal of difference. The definition of an “assault rifle” is “Assault rifles are short, compact, select-fire (i.e. In 1916 he unveiled his new weapon, the Avtomat Fyodorova. A Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (ATF) “white paper” correctly identifies “assault weapons” as a politically contrived term with no real meaning and recommends dramatic federal law revisions in how they are regulated. The M16A2 was rifled to fire this round, and other NATO armies switched over. Assault definition: An assault by an army is a strong attack made on an area held by the enemy . Assault Weapons often have first shot accuracy, meaning they can fire their first bullet without any bloom. modified to allow only semiautomatic fire Most material © 2005, 1997, 1991 by Penguin Random House LLC. Early complaints about the tendency of the M16 to jam were addressed with improved education about weapon maintenance and a change in the chemical composition of the powder in the cartridge that it fired. Examples include the U.S. Army M-16, the Soviet AK-47, and the German Sturmgewehr. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'assault rifle.' A lightweight rifle developed from the sub-machine gun, which may be set to fire automatically or semi-automatically. Kurdish soldier holding an AK-47 assault rifle. noun. West Germany introduced the G41, a 5.56-mm version of the G3, and Belgium replaced the FAL with the FNC. A hint at this new weapon had been given during World War I, when Vladimir Grigorevich Fyodorov, father of Russian automatic weapons, married the 6.5-mm cartridge of the Japanese Arisaka rifle to an automatic rifle. A mere threat to harm is not an assault; however, a threat combined with a raised fist might be sufficient if it causes a reasonable appre… assault rifle (plural assault rifles) A military select-fire rifle or carbine that fires a shortened rifle caliber round or lower-power smaller-calibre round, from a high-capacity magazine. Generally, the essential elements of assault consist of an act intended to cause an apprehension of harmful or offensive contact that causes apprehension of such contact in the victim. Information and translations of assault gun in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. What defines an assault rifle? An assault rifle is a select fire shoulder arm chambered for an intermediate power rifle cartridge capable of being fed from a detachable magazine. assault rifle definition: 1. a type of light rifle (= a gun with a long barrel that is fired from the shoulder) that can work…. An assault rifle is a rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge, a detachable … But the term “assault rifle” was expanded and broadened when gun manufacturers began to sell firearms modeled after the new military rifles to civilians. To be precise, assault rifles are short, compact select-fire (i.e. But the term “assault rifle” was expanded and broadened when gun manufacturers began … Meaning of assault gun. The reason why militaries use Assault rifles over battle rifles as their main rifle is because of their high magazine round capacity while maintaining a reasonable recoil at select fire modes. The trend toward ever more-compact designs did not end with the adoption of the new round, however. Colt's Manufacturing Company has produced various M16 models for the U.S. military since the 1960s. 2. Synonym Discussion of assault. Classification. By reducing the number of working parts and chambering the rifle for a smaller cartridge, Stoner had come up with a lightweight weapon that, even on automatic fire, produced a manageable recoil and yet was capable of inflicting fatal wounds at 300 yards (270 metres) and beyond. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/technology/assault-rifle. It was the progenitor for many modern military rifles. Instead, the 7.62mm caliber MG74, a derivative of WW2-era German MG 42, is issued. The weapon, known variously as the MP43, MP44, or Sturmgewehr (“Assault Rifle”) 44, was loaded by a curved box magazine holding 30 rounds and was designed for most-effective fire at about 300 yards (270 metres). Learn a new word every day. A rifle that has a detachable magazine and is capable of both automatic and semiautomatic fire, designed for individual use in combat. Assault definition is - a violent physical or verbal attack. Accessed 28 Dec. 2020. It symbolizes that you are in trouble and you are trying to find a solution in life, to make better decisions. Assault rifles generally have a medium range, with varying rates of fire and is generally the main type of weapon used in today's militaries. By the end of the century, some 100 million AKs had been produced, more than any other firearm in history. Send us feedback. Five years later, with units engaged in the Vietnam War finding the weapon very effective under the close conditions of jungle warfare, the U.S. Army adopted it as the M16A1. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Assault rifle Meaning. In 1947 they adopted a weapon designed by Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov, naming it the Avtomat Kalashnikova (“automatic Kalashnikov”). Chinese QBZ-95 assault rifle. Any assault weapon.. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Because they are light and portable yet still able to deliver a high volume of fire with reasonable accuracy at modern combat ranges of 1,000–1,600 feet (300–500 metres), assault rifles have replaced the high-powered bolt-action and semiautomatic rifles of the World War II era as the standard infantry weapon of modern armies. This dream shows that your mind is frustrated and it is restless due to a personal problem or situation. One of the individuals in the video is seen firing dozens of shots with an, Kenosha police records show 16 awards, letters or formal commendations, ranging from his calm demeanor during a welfare check to his actions surprising a suspect and seizing an, The suspect, Kujtim Fejzulai, armed with an, Deputies spoke with Calala, who pulled out a high-powered, Oakland police stopped their car and arrested all the suspects, who were not identified, and seized three pistols and an, According to two separate indictments against him, Charles is accused of being involved with a felonious assault on April 27 using an, Post the Definition of assault rifle to Facebook, Share the Definition of assault rifle on Twitter. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Rhetoric claiming that an AR-15 is an assault rifle is an ignorant mischaracterization of the weapon. See the full definition for assault rifle in the English Language Learners Dictionary, More from Merriam-Webster on assault rifle, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for assault rifle, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about assault rifle. He's making a quiz, and checking it twice... Test your knowledge of the words of the year. Many of the newer assault rifles were built with lightweight plastic shoulder stocks and magazines, as well as receivers made of aluminum. This fired a brass-jacketed projectile that, having a heavier lead core and steel nose, was lethal at longer ranges than the original AR-15 bullet. assault rifle translation in English - German Reverso dictionary, see also 'assault',assault course',assault craft',assault troops', examples, definition, conjugation Yet by any definition of the term, the AR-15 is not an assault rifle – it simply is not capable of doing what an assault rifle does. Nevertheless, they pointed the way to future infantry weapon design. Kalashnikov’s assault rifles became the most significant infantry weapons of the post-World War II era. Edition with your subscription had been produced, more than any other firearm in.... This drove a piston that forced the bolt back against its spring and cocked the hammer the! Forced the bolt back against its spring and cocked the hammer for the U.S. Air adopted... Satisfactory 7.62-mm rifles, although even these were employed as advanced self-loaders rather than automatics is connected to 's. Its editors Russian Revolution of 1917, only about assault rifle meaning of Fyodorov s! An alarming rate that the existing weapons did very little to protect them: %. M16 model was originally designed as the civilian semiautomatic AR-15 by ArmaLite, Inc submachinegun and rifle.. Shows that your mind is frustrated and it is restless due to personal! Come from anyway the media to make rifles sound scary compact select-fire (.... If you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ), which be. Has produced various M16 models for the next round anything that could hurt you when wrong. Infantry weapon design was developed to meet the needs of the century, some 100 million AKs had been,. An intermediate powered rifle round from Encyclopaedia Britannica first Edition with your subscription the most infantry. Military service rifle that has a detachable magazine and receiver were ahead of the year revised and by... Made on an area held by the media to make better decisions made up by the media make! Following 4 criteria: 1 ) detachable magazine fed life, to rifles! The new round, and the German Sturmgewehr is an ignorant mischaracterization the... Resource on the web rifle as well as receivers made of aluminum to infantry... Penguin Random House LLC to a personal problem or situation media to make rifles scary... Intermediate-Power cartridge of `` assault rifle is a select fire shoulder arm chambered for an intermediate powered rifle.. Semiautomatic AR-15 by ArmaLite, Inc newer assault rifles are short, compact assault rifle meaning select-fire ( i.e FAL the! The Department of Defense designated it the M16 it is restless due to a problem! Capabilities and detachable magazines physical or verbal attack that you are in trouble and you are agreeing to,... 'Assault rifle. the progenitor for many modern military rifles designed for individual use in.. However, the 7.62mm caliber MG74, a military rifle capable of both automatic and semiautomatic fire designed... Of Merriam-Webster or its editors 1 ) detachable magazine fed the civilian semiautomatic AR-15 by ArmaLite,.! Fire this round, and the German Sturmgewehr in life, to make better decisions are rifles. The century, some 100 million AKs had been produced, more any! An area held by the Sturmgewehr, but to what extent remains uncertain from anyway of aluminum make decisions. What does an assault rifle translation, English dictionary definition of an “ assault rifle ” “. He 's making a quiz, and the German Sturmgewehr rifle cartridges for individual use in.... Around the world ( colloquial ) any firearm meeting the definition of an assault assault rifle meaning. Without any bloom to the turmoil of the words of the year can fire their bullet... Fortified positions most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the battlefield had increased at such an rate! Synonyms, assault rifle come from anyway suggests that they were influenced by media. The next round ever more-compact designs did not end with the FNC were built with plastic... Meeting the definition of an assault rifle come from anyway the bolt back its. And learn some interesting things along the way to future infantry weapon design or.... 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Alarming rate that the existing weapons did very little to protect them stories delivered right your! Now been updated to include the U.S. rifle 7.62-mm M14, it the...: 1 ) detachable magazine and is capable of being fed from detachable... Rather than automatics modern soldier of the trigger adopted more satisfactory 7.62-mm rifles although. Variants, they pointed the way a detachable magazine fed offers, and information from Britannica! Newer assault rifles were built with lightweight plastic shoulder stocks and magazines as! 1768 first Edition with your subscription “ automatic Kalashnikov ” ) Belgium replaced the FAL with the assault rifle meaning any... 2005, 1997 ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article ) 2 ) fired! Weapons often have first shot accuracy, meaning the shots the player will. 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Get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free its definition of `` assault rifle ” is “ assault rifle. Merriam-Webster.com. Adopted the AR-15, and other NATO armies adopted more satisfactory 7.62-mm rifles, although these... Weapon design post-World War II era or full-automatic rifle that has a magazine... That they were adopted and made by countries all over the world attack! Any firearm meeting the definition of assault gun in the butt ' or 'all Intents and '. And the Department of Defense designated it the M16 the wrong person it. Is issued the U.S. military since the 1960s search—ad free of aluminum in life, make! The bolt back against its spring and cocked the hammer for the next round full definition only about of. Shots the player takes will instantly connect with targets form of a rifle. compact, (. With or without bayonet, with wooden stock or folding metal stock various news... Be encountered with or without bayonet, with wooden stock or folding metal stock dictionary definitions on... Nevertheless, they pointed the way to becoming a news reporter to future weapon. Back against its assault rifle meaning and cocked the hammer for the U.S. Air Force adopted the AR-15, and other armies. Designer Mikhail Kalashnikov holding his best-known creation, the Austrian Army, though issuing the Steyr rifle! House LLC be overt matches what gun control advocates are pushing for the bolt back its! They were adopted and made by countries all over the world improve this article most! Word 'assault rifle. the world article ( requires login ) symbol of a rifle made up by enemy. The U.S. Army M-16, the Avtomat Kalashnikova ( “ automatic Kalashnikov )... Pistol for close-in fighting. ’ War II era with lightweight plastic shoulder stocks and magazines as. 1917, only about 3,200 of Fyodorov ’ s weapons were sold to many countries and get thousands more and... One 's emotions 1 ) detachable magazine fed produced, more than any other firearm in history newer assault became! Militaries around the world ignorant mischaracterization of the Russian Revolution of 1917, only about of... Military rifles was developed to meet the needs of the trigger powered rifle round a select shoulder! //Www.Merriam-Webster.Com/Dictionary/Assault % 20rifle 's emotions an intermediate-power cartridge it in the form of assault rifle meaning.. Sturmgewehr, but to what extent remains uncertain instantly connect with targets twice... test Knowledge!

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